Pay transparency laws: A state-by-state guide [Updated 2024]

Published

Oct 16, 2023

Pay transparency laws are changing. While compensation has been a taboo topic in the past, new laws requiring employers to disclose salary ranges are picking up steam, both at the state and federal levels.

Pay transparency legislation requires employers to disclose salary information to job candidates and current employees, making workplaces more transparent and equitable. Laws typically cover a few key areas:

  • Salary information: Some states require employers to disclose wage ranges but with different requirements for when and how. Some states require a range to be included in the job listing, while others don’t require you to disclose it until after the first interview, at the applicant’s request, or later.
    • Total compensation: Some states require you to disclose more than just the pay range, like benefits, bonuses, commission, and anything else that makes up the full compensation package.
      • Remote employees: Some states require transparency for remote jobs, while others only require it for hybrid or in-office roles.

        California was the first place in the US to adopt pay transparency legislation—in 2018—and now many other states (and even other countries) have followed suit. Today, there are 10 states with pay transparency laws on the books.

        In March 2023, the Salary Transparency Act and Pay Equity for All Act were introduced in Congress. If both laws pass, they would require all US employers to disclose wage ranges associated with all employment opportunities and prevent employers from asking job candidates about their salary histories. But even if these laws don’t pass, more and more states are considering and adopting their own pay transparency laws every year.

        For now, laws are patchwork, which can make it tricky for employers to comply with varying regulations, especially if they employ people in multiple states where different rules apply. Below, we’ll cover pay transparency laws in all 50 states and DC, so you can make sure you follow the right rules for where your workers are based.

        US pay transparency laws by state

        California

        Date Effective

        Requirements

        Who does this apply to?

        Consequences of non-compliance

        Jan. 1, 2023

        Salary information: Employers must disclose the salary range in all job postings. Employers may not ask a job applicant about their salary history. Employers must disclose a position’s salary range to current employees upon request.

        Remote employees: Employers must disclose salary information in job postings for jobs that can be done remotely.

        Employers with at least one employee must disclose salary ranges to their current employees upon request.

        Employers with at least 15 employees, with at least one working in California, must meet all the other requirements of the law.

        Civil penalties are between $100 and $10,000 per violation.

        Colorado

        Date Effective

        Requirements

        Who does this apply to?

        Consequences of non-compliance

        Jan. 1, 2021

        Updates effective Jan. 1, 2024

        Salary information: Colorado’s Equal Pay for Equal Work Act (first enacted in 2021) was updated in 2023 to require all employers to post, advertise, and notify all employees of all job opportunities (not just promotional ones) and disclose pay scales, job descriptions, and the date the application window is expected to close in all job listings. The compensation posting requirements do not apply to either (1) jobs to be performed entirely outside Colorado or (2) postings entirely outside Colorado.

        Total compensation: The law requires employers to list benefits and any other compensation (such as bonuses or commissions) in addition to the salary information.

        All employers with at least one employee in Colorado

        Fines range between $500 and $10,000 per violation.

        Connecticut

        Date Effective

        Requirements

        Who does this apply to?

        Consequences of non-compliance

        Oct. 1, 2021

        • Salary information: During the hiring process, employers must disclose the salary range for a position in the earliest of these situations:
          • At the applicant’s request
          • Prior to or at the time the applicant is made an offer of compensation

        Employers must also disclose salary information to their current employees at their request or whenever they change positions. Employers may not ask about an applicant’s pay history unless it is voluntarily disclosed.

        Employers with at least one employee in Connecticut

        An employee or job applicant can bring a civil action against an employer who violates the law within two years of the violation. They can seek compensatory and punitive damages, plus costs.

        Hawaii

        Date Effective

        Requirements

        Who does this apply to?

        Consequences of non-compliance

        Jan. 1, 2024

        Salary information: Employers must include a salary range or hourly wage rate in job postings that accurately reflects what they expect to pay for the role.

        This applies to employers with at least 50 employees. The law provides that disclosure requirements don’t apply to:

        • Public employee positions whose compensation is determined under a collective bargaining agreement
          • Internal transfers or promotions

            Employers accused of violating the law can face civil action for compensatory and punitive damages, plus costs.

            Illinois

            Date Effective

            Requirements

            Who does this apply to?

            Consequences of non-compliance

            Jan. 1, 2025

            Salary information: Employers must include the wage scale they reasonably expect to pay for a position in the job posting.

            Total compensation: They must also include a general description of any benefits included in the total compensation, including bonuses, stock options, and other incentives.

            Remote employees: The Illinois law applies to any positions that will be physically performed, at least in part, in Illinois or will be physically performed outside of Illinois, but the employee reports to a supervisor, office, or work site in Illinois.

            Employers with at least 15 employees

            Fines range between $500 and $10,000 per violation.

            Maryland

            Date Effective

            Requirements

            Who does this apply to?

            Consequences of non-compliance

            Oct. 1, 2020

            Salary information: Employers must provide job applicants with a wage scale for a position at their request.

            Employers cannot request an applicant’s wage history.

            All employers engaged in business in the State of Maryland

            A warning for a first violation, a $300 fine for a second violation, and a $600 fine for a third or subsequent violation

            Nevada

            Date Effective

            Requirements

            Who does this apply to?

            Consequences of non-compliance

            Oct. 1, 2021

            Salary information: Employers must provide salary information to applicants for any role they interview for. They must also provide salary information to current employees seeking a promotion or internal transfer if they request it and one of these conditions is true:

            • They applied for the new position.
              • They completed an interview for the new position.
                • They received an offer for the new position.

                  All employers in Nevada

                  Employees and job seekers can bring civil action against employers. The Labor Commission may also impose fines of $5,000 per violation, plus investigation and attorney costs.

                  New York

                  Date Effective

                  Requirements

                  Who does this apply to?

                  Consequences of non-compliance

                  Sept. 17, 2023

                  Salary information: Employers must disclose salary ranges for positions that can or will be performed in New York.

                  Remote employees: The law applies to jobs that can be performed in New York or will be performed outside of New York but report to a supervisor, office, or work site in New York.

                  All private New York employers with four or more employees (note that the law doesn’t specify whether this is total employees or employees in New York State)

                  Fines up to $1,000 for the first violation, up to $2,000 for the second violation, and up to $3,000 for the third and subsequent violations

                  Rhode Island

                  Date Effective

                  Requirements

                  Who does this apply to?

                  Consequences of non-compliance

                  Jan. 1, 2023

                  Salary information: Employers must disclose salary ranges for job applicants’ and current employees’ positions if:

                  • They request it.
                    • For applicants, before discussing an offer of compensation.
                      • For current employees, at the time of hire or before they move to a new position.

                        Employers are prohibited from seeking the wage history of an applicant.

                        Employers with at least one employee in Rhode Island

                        Fines range between $1,000 and $5,000.

                        Washington

                        Date Effective

                        Requirements

                        Who does this apply to?

                        Consequences of non-compliance

                        Jan. 1, 2023

                        Salary information: All job postings must include salary information. For internal job transfers and promotions, employers must disclose salary ranges at the employee’s request.

                        Total compensation: Job postings must also include a general description of benefits and information about any other compensation (bonuses, stock options, commissions, etc.).

                        Remote employees: Washington’s law applies to any company outside of Washington that might hire Washington-based employees. The law prohibits employers from avoiding disclosure by stating in job postings that they don’t accept applicants from Washington.

                        Employers with 15 or more employees who engage in business in Washington or recruit for jobs that could be filled by Washington-based employees

                        Employers may be ordered to pay damages to employees, plus 1% interest per month.

                        Additionally, employers may be charged fines of up to $500 for a first violation and up to $1,000 or 10% of damages (whichever is greater) for repeat violations, plus fees, interest, costs, and other relief.

                        States considering pay transparency

                        Alaska

                        Date Effective

                        Requirements

                        Who does this apply to?

                        Consequences of non-compliance

                        None yet - this bill was proposed in the Alaska legislature in 2021 but has not yet passed.

                        Salary information: Employers must disclose the salary range in all job postings. Employers may not ask a job applicant about their salary history.

                        Employers with at least one employee

                        Fines range between $100 and $2,000 per violation.

                        District of Columbia

                        Date Effective

                        Requirements

                        Who does this apply to?

                        Consequences of non-compliance

                        None yet—the bill has been proposed as part of the 2023 legislative session.

                        Salary information: Employers must include salary ranges in job postings.

                        Total compensation: Job postings must also include a description of benefits, including bonuses, stock options, equity, and any other compensation.

                        Private employers with 25 or more employees

                        Fines range between $1,000 and $20,000 per violation.

                        Kentucky

                        Date Effective

                        Requirements

                        Who does this apply to?

                        Consequences of non-compliance

                        None. An amendment to existing Kentucky employment law was introduced in 2023 but hasn’t moved forward.

                        Salary information: The amendment would require employers to include salary information in job postings.

                        Total compensation: It would also require them to include benefits and other compensation.

                        The bill doesn’t specify beyond “employers.”

                        No consequences for non-compliance are included in the draft bill.

                        Maine

                        Date Effective

                        Requirements

                        Who does this apply to?

                        Consequences of non-compliance

                        None yet—Maine introduced this legislation in 2023, but it hasn’t passed.

                        Salary information: Maine’s draft bill would require all employers to disclose salary information, but the exact requirements depend on how many employees they have:

                        • Those with 10 or more employees would be required to include pay ranges in all job postings.
                          • Those with fewer than 10 employees must provide the pay range for an open position to any applicant upon request.
                            • All employers must provide the pay range to a current employee for that employee’s own position upon request.

                              All employers in Maine, but there are different requirements based on the number of employees they have

                              The draft bill, as written, doesn’t yet specify any consequences for non-compliance.

                              Massachusetts

                              Date Effective

                              Requirements

                              Who does this apply to?

                              Consequences of non-compliance

                              None yet—the bill was proposed during the 2023-2024 legislative session and is widely expected to pass this year.

                              Salary information: Employers would be required to include a salary range for all job postings, including for new positions, transfers, and promotions.

                              Employers with 15 or more employees in Massachusetts

                              A warning for the first offense and a fine of up to $500 for the second offense. On third and subsequent offenses, fines of up to $7,500 if the violation was unintentional or $15,000 if it was intentional.

                              Alternatively, employers may be criminally charged on a third or subsequent offense.

                              Michigan

                              Date Effective

                              Requirements

                              Who does this apply to?

                              Consequences of non-compliance

                              None yet—the bill is currently pending in the Michigan Senate.

                              Salary information: Employers would have to create and maintain a job posting for each position that includes salary information for the role. They would also be required to make the job description available to any applicant during the recruitment, hiring, or promotion process and to any current employee who requests it.

                              Employers with more than five employees

                              A fine of up to $1,000

                              Missouri

                              Date Effective

                              Requirements

                              Who does this apply to?

                              Consequences of non-compliance

                              None yet—this bill was proposed during Missouri’s 2023 legislative session but stalled in committee.

                              Salary information: Employers must disclose salary ranges to job applicants at the earliest of these:

                              • When the applicant requests it
                                • When a job offer is made

                                  Employers must also provide salary ranges to current employees who are applying for a transfer or promotion if both of these are true:

                                  • The employee has completed an interview or been offered a transfer or promotion.
                                    • The employee has requested the salary information.

                                      The proposed bill doesn’t include any specific language about who it applies to other than “employers.”

                                      Fines range between $1,000 and $5,000.

                                      Montana

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      None yet—the state legislature considered a bill during its 2023 session, but it didn't pass.

                                      Salary information: Employers must include salary or wage information in job postings.

                                      Total compensation: Employers must also include descriptions of benefits and other compensation offered for the role.

                                      Employers with 15 or more employees

                                      Fines range between $500 and $10,000 per violation.

                                      New Jersey

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      None yet—bills are currently pending in the New Jersey State Assembly and Senate.

                                      Salary information: Employers would be required to include the hourly wage or salary for each job opening.

                                      Total compensation: They would also be required to have a general description of any benefits or other compensation included for the role.

                                      Employers in New Jersey

                                      Aggrieved parties would be able to bring civil action against employers to seek injunctive and compensatory damages, plus costs.

                                      Oregon

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      None yet—the Oregon legislature considered this bill during its 2023 session but shelved it.

                                      Salary information: Employers would be required to include pay ranges in job postings.

                                      Total compensation: They would also be required to state any benefits included in the total compensation for the role.

                                      Employers in Oregon

                                      $1,000 fine for the first violation, with the fine increasing by $1,000 for each subsequent violation, up to $10,000

                                      South Dakota

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      None yet—the bill was introduced during South Dakota’s 2023 legislative session but didn’t pass.

                                      Salary information: Employers must include hourly or salary ranges in all job postings for new positions, transfers, and promotions.

                                      Total compensation: They must also include a general description of any benefits and other compensation for the role.

                                      Private employers with 100 or more employees

                                      A $500 fine for each violation

                                      Vermont

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      None yet—the Vermont State House introduced a bill during the 2023 legislative session.

                                      Salary information: The bill, if passed, would require employers to disclose salary information to job applicants and current employees.

                                      It’s unclear from the language of the draft bill which employers it would apply to.

                                      The draft bill, as written, doesn’t include any consequences for non-compliance.

                                      Virginia

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      None yet—the bill passed Virginia's State Senate in 2023 but was held in the House Commerce and Energy Committee.

                                      Salary information: The law, if passed, would have required employers to provide a pay range to prospective employees upon request and before discussing compensation during the hiring process.

                                      All employers in Virginia

                                      Fines range between $1,000 and $10,000 or actual damages, whichever is greater.

                                      West Virginia

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      None yet—the bill was introduced in the West Virginia House of Delegates in 2023.

                                      Salary information: Employers must provide salary and wage information to job candidates who request it, and they can't discriminate against candidates who ask for compensation information.

                                      Total compensation: Employers must also provide benefits and other compensation details upon request.

                                      Any person, firm, or corporation employing an employee

                                      Employers who violate the law could be sued by their employees for compensatory and punitive damages, plus costs.

                                      Local pay transparency laws

                                      New Jersey (Jersey City)

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      April 13, 2022

                                      Salary information: Employers must disclose salary ranges in postings for jobs, transfers, and promotions.

                                      Total compensation: They must also include a description of the benefits included in the total compensation for the role.

                                      Employers with five or more employees in Jersey City and a place of business there

                                      Fines of up to $2,000 per violation

                                      New York (Ithaca)

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      Sept. 1, 2022

                                      Salary information: Employers must publish salary ranges in job, transfer, and promotion postings. The requirement applies to all positions for which the standard work location will be in the City of Ithaca.

                                      Employers in the City of Ithaca with four or more employees

                                      The Ithaca law is a bit vague, but employers who violate it may be liable for “money damages and any other remedy available at law,” according to Section 215-9.5 of the Ithaca City Code.

                                      New York (New York City)

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      Nov. 1, 2022

                                      Salary information: Employers must include salary ranges in job postings for positions that can or will be performed in NYC.

                                      Total compensation: Job postings must also include an overview of benefits included in the total compensation.

                                      Remote employees: The law applies to remote jobs if they can be performed in NYC.

                                      Employers with four or more employees where at least one of them is in New York City

                                      No penalty for a first violation if it’s corrected within 30 days. Otherwise, you could receive fines of up to $250,000 for an uncorrected first violation or repeat violations.

                                      New York (Westchester County)

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      Nov. 6, 2022

                                      Salary information: Employers must include salary information in job postings.

                                      Remote employees: The law applies to remote jobs that can be performed in Westchester County.

                                      Any employer posting a job that can be performed in Westchester County

                                      Fines up to $3,000, depending on the employer’s size, good faith, the gravity of the violation, and whether it’s a first or repeat offense

                                      Ohio (Cincinnati)

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      March 13, 2020

                                      Salary information: Employers must disclose salary ranges to job applicants after extending them a job offer if the applicant requests the information.

                                      Employers are prohibited from inquiring about the salary history of an applicant for employment.

                                      Employers with 15 or more employees in Cincinnati

                                      Job applicants can take legal action against employers who violate the law for up to two years after the violation to seek compensatory damages and costs.

                                      Ohio (Toledo)

                                      Date Effective

                                      Requirements

                                      Who does this apply to?

                                      Consequences of non-compliance

                                      Nov. 1, 2022

                                      Salary information: Employers must disclose salary ranges to job applicants after extending them a job offer if the applicant requests the information.

                                      Employers are prohibited from inquiring about the salary history of an applicant for employment.

                                      Employers with 15 or more employees in Toledo

                                      Job applicants can take legal action against employers who violate the law for up to two years after the violation to seek compensatory damages and costs.

                                      States without pay transparency

                                      There’s no doubt that pay transparency laws are picking up steam. 10 states already have laws on the books, and 12 more and the District of Columbia introduced pay transparency legislation in 2023 alone. In some of those states, the new bills have already been shelved. But in others, laws may still pass this year, providing pay transparency for even more workers across the nation.

                                      Still, though, the majority of US states have no pay transparency laws at either the state or local levels:

                                      • Alabama
                                        • Alaska**
                                          • Arizona
                                            • Arkansas
                                              • Delaware
                                                • District of Columbia*
                                                  • Florida
                                                    • Georgia
                                                      • Idaho
                                                        • Indiana
                                                          • Iowa
                                                            • Kansas
                                                              • Kentucky**
                                                                • Louisiana
                                                                  • Maine*
                                                                    • Massachusetts*
                                                                      • Michigan*
                                                                        • Minnesota
                                                                          • Mississippi
                                                                            • Missouri**
                                                                              • Montana*
                                                                                • Nebraska
                                                                                  • New Hampshire
                                                                                    • New Jersey*
                                                                                      • New Mexico
                                                                                        • North Carolina
                                                                                          • North Dakota
                                                                                            • Ohio
                                                                                              • Oklahoma
                                                                                                • Oregon*
                                                                                                  • Pennsylvania
                                                                                                    • South Carolina
                                                                                                      • South Dakota*
                                                                                                        • Tennessee
                                                                                                          • Texas
                                                                                                            • Utah
                                                                                                              • Vermont*
                                                                                                                • Virginia*
                                                                                                                  • West Virginia*
                                                                                                                    • Wisconsin
                                                                                                                      • Wyoming

                                                                                                                        ** Currently considering pay transparency laws

                                                                                                                        * Has considered pay transparency laws during a past legislative session

                                                                                                                        Similar but not quite the same: Salary history bans

                                                                                                                        One other important part of the pay transparency legal landscape to consider is salary history bans: laws that make it illegal for an employer to ask about a job applicant’s salary history during the recruitment or hiring process. Salary history bans are much more common—both state and local laws are commonly found across the country. Below are all the places in the US that have prohibited employers from asking job seekers about their salary histories:

                                                                                                                        • Alabama: Employers cannot refuse to hire, interview, promote, or employ a job applicant based on the applicant’s decision not to provide a salary history.
                                                                                                                          • California: All private and public employers are prohibited from seeking a job applicant’s pay history.
                                                                                                                            • Colorado: Employers cannot ask about a job applicant’s salary history or use it to determine their pay.
                                                                                                                              • Connecticut: Employers cannot ask about a job applicant’s salary history.
                                                                                                                                • Delaware: Employers cannot screen job applicants by their salary histories or ask them about it during the hiring process. They can only confirm salary history after an offer is extended.
                                                                                                                                  • District of Columbia: Government agencies cannot ask candidates about their salary histories.
                                                                                                                                    • Georgia:  No statewide law, but city agencies in the City of Atlanta cannot ask for past salary information on job applications.
                                                                                                                                      • Hawaii: Employers cannot ask about a job applicant’s salary history.
                                                                                                                                        • Illinois: Statewide, employers cannot ask about a job applicant’s salary history, including benefits or other compensation (though they can ask the applicant about their pay expectations). In Chicago, city departments cannot ask applicants for their salary histories.
                                                                                                                                          • Kentucky: No statewide law, but in Louisville, city agencies cannot ask job applicants for their salary histories.
                                                                                                                                            • Louisiana: No statewide law, but in New Orleans, the city cannot seek pay histories or screen job applicants based on current or prior pay, benefits, or other compensation.
                                                                                                                                              • Maine: Employers cannot ask about a job applicant’s salary history until after a job offer has been made.
                                                                                                                                                • Maryland: Statewide, employers cannot ask job applicants for their salary histories, but they can confirm if it is voluntarily given by the candidate after an employment offer is made. In Montgomery County, government agencies cannot use salary history as a factor in hiring or setting a candidate’s pay.
                                                                                                                                                  • Massachusetts: Employers cannot ask job applicants for their salary histories, but they can confirm salary history if the applicant volunteers it after a job offer is made.
                                                                                                                                                    • Michigan: State departments cannot ask for an applicant’s salary history until a conditional offer of employment is made.
                                                                                                                                                      • Mississippi: No statewide law, but in Jackson, city agencies cannot ask job applicants about their salary histories.
                                                                                                                                                        • Missouri: No statewide law. In St. Louis, city departments cannot ask job applicants about their salary histories. In Kansas City, employers with six or more employees cannot ask for or rely on job applicants’ salary histories to make hiring decisions or determine salary, benefits, or other compensation.
                                                                                                                                                          • Nevada: Employers cannot ask job applicants about their salary histories or refuse to hire, interview, promote, or employ any applicant who doesn’t provide a salary history.
                                                                                                                                                            • New Jersey: Employers cannot screen job applicants based on their salary histories.
                                                                                                                                                              • New York: Employers cannot seek job applicants’ salary histories.
                                                                                                                                                                • North Carolina: State agencies cannot seek job applicants’ salary histories.
                                                                                                                                                                  • Ohio: No statewide law, but employers with 15 or more employees in Cincinnati, Columbus, and Toledo are prohibited from asking job applicants about their wage or salary histories.
                                                                                                                                                                    • Oregon: Employers cannot ask about a job applicant’s salary history until after an employment offer is made.
                                                                                                                                                                      • Pennsylvania: State agencies cannot ask about a job applicant’s pay history at any stage in the hiring process. In Philadelphia, no employer may ask job candidates for their pay histories. In Pittsburgh, city agencies cannot ask job applicants for their pay histories.
                                                                                                                                                                        • Rhode Island: Employers cannot ask job applicants for their salary histories or rely on them when considering applicants or setting pay.
                                                                                                                                                                          • South Carolina: No statewide law, but in Columbia, city agencies cannot ask job applicants for their salary histories. In Richland County, county agencies cannot seek pay history from job applicants.
                                                                                                                                                                            • Utah: No statewide law, but in Salt Lake City, city agencies cannot ask job applicants for their salary histories.
                                                                                                                                                                              • Vermont: Employers cannot ask job applicants for their pay histories.
                                                                                                                                                                                • Virginia: State agencies cannot ask applicants for their salary histories.
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Washington: Employers cannot ask job applicants for their salary histories.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Rippling and its affiliates do not provide tax, accounting, or legal advice. This material has been prepared for informational purposes only, and is not intended to provide, and should not be relied on for tax, legal, or accounting advice. You should consult your own tax, legal, and accounting advisors before engaging in any related activities or transactions.

                                                                                                                                                                                    last edited: January 3, 2024

                                                                                                                                                                                    The Author

                                                                                                                                                                                    Christina Marfice

                                                                                                                                                                                    Christina is a writer, editor, and content strategist based in Chicago. Having lived and worked in Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, she’s bringing her expertise on hiring in Latin America to Rippling.

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